Published on Jun 05, 2023

Friction Stir Welding

In late 1991 a very novel and potentially world beating welding method was conceived at TWI. The process was duly named friction stir welding (FSW), and TWI filed for world-wide patent protection in December of that year. TWI (The Welding Institute) is a world famous institute in the UK that specializes in materials joining technology. Consistent with the more conventional methods of friction welding, which have been practiced since the early 1950s, the weld is made in the solid phase, that is, no melting is involved. Compared to conventional friction welding, FSW uses a rotating tool to generate the necessary heat for the process. Since its invention, the process has received world-wide attention and today two Scandinavian companies are using the technology in production, particularly for joining aluminium alloys. Also, FSW is a process that can be automated. It is also a cleaner and more efficient process compared to conventional techniques.


In friction stir welding (FSW) a cylindrical, shouldered tool with a profiled probe is rotated and slowly plunged into the joint line between two pieces butted together. The parts have to be clamped onto a backing bar in a manner that prevents the abutting joint faces from being forced apart. Frictional heat is generated between the wear resistant welding tool and the material of the work pieces. This heat causes the latter to soften without reaching the melting point and allows traversing of the tool along the weld line. The maximum temperature reached is of the order of 0.8 of the melting temperature of the material. The plasticized material is transferred from the leading edge of the tool to the trailing edge of the tool probe and is forged by the intimate contact of the tool shoulder and the pin profile. It leaves a solid phase bond between the two pieces. The process can be regarded as a solid phase keyhole welding technique since a hole to accommodate the probe is generated, then filled during the welding sequence.


The non-consumable tool has a circular section except at the end where there is a threaded probe or more complicated flute; the junction between the cylindrical portion and the probe is known as the shoulder. The probe penetrates the work piece whereas the shoulder rubs with the top surface. The tool has an end tap of 5 in 6 mm diameter and a height of 5 to 6 mm (may vary with the metal thickness). The tool is set in a positive angle of some degree in the welding direction. The design of the pin and shoulder assembly plays a major role on how the material moves during the process.


The first attempt at classifying microstructures was made by P L Threadgill (Bulletin, March 1997). This work was based solely on information available from aluminium alloys. However, it has become evident from work on other materials that the behavior of aluminium alloys is not typical of most metallic materials, and therefore the scheme cannot be broadened to encompass all materials. It is therefore proposed that the following revised scheme is used. This has been developed at TWI, but has been discussed with a number of appropriate people in industry and academia, and has also been provisionally accepted by the Friction Stir Welding Licensees Association.